Crassus knew that his place in the Triumvirate was owed solely to his wealth. After intervening to overthrow rulers in client kingdoms adjoining Parthia, he invaded in 216 using an abortive wedding proposal to the Parthian king's daughter as a casus belli. By 146, Rome had destroyed Carthage and crushed the Macedonian power in Greece. Exactly what role did the wars between Rome and Parthia play in history?  Also, Charax's rulers' domains at the time possibly included the Bahrain islands (where a Palmyrene citizen held office, shortly after Trajan's death, as satrap  – but then, the appointment was made by a Parthian king of Charax  ) something which offered the possibility of extending Roman hegemony into the Persian Gulf itself. Throughout the remaining history of the relations, Armenia would the role of a “buffer state” between the two powers.  In 114, Trajan invaded Armenia, annexed it as a Roman province, and killed Parthamasiris who was placed on the Armenian throne by his relative, the king of Parthia, Osroes I. The Parthian war of Caracalla was an unsuccessful campaign by the Roman Empire under Caracalla against the Parthian Empire in 216–17 AD. Pacorus withdrew but Labienus was killed in the battle. An advance on Armenia from one side was often interpreted as pretext to war. , However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 BC  – a sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatruces, who had retained a cavalry force, possibly strengthened by the addition of Saka archers,  imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially. In 116, Trajan captured Ctesiphon, and established new provi… In 113 AD Trajan turned his sights to Parthia (now north-eastern Iran), with which Rome had had previous conflicts, mainly over the control of Armenia. For the most part, the early “Roman Peace” that came out of exhaustion from the Roman civil wars carried through to their Parthian relations. Since his parents was disgraced and taken prisoner in the “Social War,” Ventidius joined the Legions as his best choice. Trajan wished to soundly defeat the Parthians and annex Armenia as a Roman territory. However, Trajan’s campaign turned for the worse. It's noteworthy, however that Trajan… The consulship was bestowed by him as a … Ventidius positioned his men on a hill with his infantry in a defensive with his slingers while the Parthian cavalry poised themselves at the foot of the hill ready to attack. Mesopotamia was the name of two distinct Roman provinces, the one a short-lived creation of the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116–117 and the other established by Emperor Septimius Severus in ca. There is some speculation that the books were …  Commercial activity in second century Mesopotamia seems to have been a general phenomenon, shared by many peoples within and without the Roman Empire, with no sign of a concerted Imperial policy towards it. It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC, and the legion accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC. The Romans were very much involved with the chaos in Parthia, where they attempted several times to support various claimants to the Parthian throne. But with the lack of progress, Antony was forced to conclude his campaign with by withdrawing his army back to Armenia. For the most part, relations between the two states took the form of “diplomatic maneuvering” rather than open war. Amist this chaos, the Parthian King Volgases V made his gamble in supporting Niger as Emperor of Rome. Mithridates I (r. c. 171–132 BC) greatly expanded the empire by seizing Media and Mesopotamia from the Seleucids. The Arsacid (Parthian) dynasty was no more. Trajan failed to take Hatra, which avoided total Parthian defeat. The emperor withdrew his men from southern Mesopotamia to consolidate his gains in the north. He did exactly this in 114, killing the king of Armenia — a relative of the Parthian King Osroes I — in the process Trajan also took northern Mesopotamia, annexing it as well, before capturing and sacking the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and then advancing all the way to the Persi… The last conflict between Rome and Parthia occurred at around 217, when a series of political complications escalated into war. Trajan argued that this act was a violation of treaty. T. Olajos, "Le monument du triomphe de Trajan en Parthie.  The fact that emissaries from the Kushan Empire might have attended to the commemorative ceremonies for the Dacian War may have kindled in some Greco-Roman intellectuals like Plutarch – who wrote about only 70,000 Roman soldiers being necessary to a conquest of India – as well as in Trajan's closer associates, speculative dreams about the booty to be obtained by reproducing Macedonian Eastern conquests. Attempting to do one better than Trajan, Cassius the next year invaded Media, the heart of the Parthian … The Armenian compromise served its purpose, but nothing was arranged for the deposition of a king. Unlike their Parthian predecessors, the Sassanids were more centralized and more aggressive.  Since Charax was a de facto independent kingdom whose connections to Palmyra were described above, Trajan's bid for the Persian Gulf may have coincided with Palmyrene interests in the region. The disaster at Carrhae was symbolic of the Roman Republic’s limitations in its expansion to the east. Sent by the emperor Verus, The Roman general Priscus defeated the Parthian garrison in Armenia and installed a Roman-appointed king to the Armenian throne. The detail of the battle, which appears to be inconclusive, is not exactly certain. The Parthians withdrew to Amanus Pass where they met Ventidius’ army for another battle. , Trajan's Parthian campaign is considered, in different ways, the climax of "two centuries of political posturing and bitter rivalry." F. A. Lepper presented French historian J. Guey’s opinion that “Trajan… It was around that time that the political pact known as First Triumvirate was formed among Crassus the richest in Rome, Pompey the greatest general of the republic, and the young but promising Julius Caesar. It was a bad decision with far reaching consequences. His primary goal was to remain independent of both the major powers in the region, the Roman and the Parthian Empires. Ventidius immediately attacked Labienus’ army, which withdrew to his Parthian ally. 1–35. With Caesar’s successful campaign in Gaul, Crassus knew that wealth alone was not enough. Nisibis was recaptured and Edessa was sacked. By 53 B.C.E. He conceived an excellent plan using counter-spying. The Parthian King fled and the city fell without much of a siege. In 113 AD, Trajan sailed from Rome to begin his campaign against Parthia. On his way to Parthia, Trajan conquered Armenia and consolidated it as a province. Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judaea in AD 117. In 114 c.e. While Septimius could not claim total victory in Mesopotamia, his conquest of Ctesiphon marked the near end of the Parthian Empire.  The Romans then captured the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon, before sailing downriver to the Persian Gulf. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. It has even been ventured that, when earlier in his campaign Trajan annexed Armenia, he was bound to annex the whole of Mesopotamia lest the Parthians interrupt the flux of trade from the Persian Gulf and/or foment trouble at the Roman frontier on the Danube. He saw this withdrawal as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to Lusius Quietus, who meanwhile had been made governor of Judaea and might have had to deal earlier with some kind of Jewish unrest in the province.  The Parthian summer capital of Susa was apparently also occupied by the Romans. After triumphing in the Seleucid–Parthian wars and annexing large amounts of Seleucid Empire the Parthians began to look west for territory to expand into. The entire diplomatic history between the two states is too complex. He added Dacia, Arabia, Armenia, and Mesopotamia to the empire, waging war against Decebalus and the Parthians. Arsacid kings reigned intermittently throughout the chaotic years following the fall of the Artaxiad dynasty until 62 when Tiridates I secured Parthian Arsacid rule in Armenia. The Battle of Nisibis was fought in the summer of 217 between the armies of the Roman Empire under the newly ascended emperor Macrinus and the Parthian army of King Artabanus V. It lasted for three days, and ended with a bloody Parthian victory, with both sides suffering large casualties. He owed much all to his successful relation to the emperor Nerva, who took Trajan as adopted son. The wars were ended by the Arab Muslim Conquests, which led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire and huge territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, shortly after the end of the last war between them.  In 115, the Roman emperor overran northern Mesopotamia and annexed it to Rome as well; its conquest was deemed necessary, since otherwise the Armenian salient could be cut off by the Parthians from the south. However, Cassius’ army was struck by plague and was forced to withdraw. In 113, Trajan embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. It was Crassus who would ultimately bring war. He did not accept the title, since he had only defeated Parthian vassals. As opposed to less organized tribes on Rome’s European borders, the Parthians were a sophisticated culture of commerce and empire. Regrettably, due to the scarcity of Parthian sources, the narrative will be told mainly from the Roman perspective. In support of a claimant, Galbinus briefly entered Parthian land with his army. Trajan subdued the rebels in Mesopotamia, installed the Parthian prince Parthamaspates as a client ruler, and withdrew to Syria. < http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-1109103-213211/unrestricted/fin.pdf>, Longdon, “Notes on the Parthian Campaigns of Trajan.”, Lightfoot, “Trajan’s Parthian war and the Fourth-Century Perspective.” The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol 80, (1990) pp. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world. Available at, The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. The success of later Roman conquerors in taking multiple key cities in Mesopotamia may have been attributed weakness within the Parthian government.  As all four consulars were senators of the highest standing and as such generally regarded as able to take imperial power (capaces imperii), Hadrian seems to have decided on a preemptive strike against these prospective rivals. The Roman general Lusius Quietus responded promptly by capturing and sacking Edessa. The following year Osroes … He was the principal commander against the Jewish rebellion known as the Kitos War.  Later in 116, Trajan, with the assistance of Quietus and two other legates, Marcus Erucius Clarus and Tiberius Julius Alexander Julianus,   defeated a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatruces was killed. Labienus regrouped with Pacorus and the armies met somewhere at the Taurus Mountains. , Finally, there are other modern historians who think that Trajan's original aims were purely military and quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the Khabur River in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan's Parthian war. The region, including the crucial of Nisibis, was conquered and Septimius was granted the title Parthicus by the Senate.  He had recruited Palmyrene units into his army, including a camel unit,  therefore apparently procuring Palmyrene support to his ultimate goal of annexing Charax. He declared Babylon a new province of the Empire and had his statue erected on the shore of the Persian Gulf,  after which he sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and bemoaning that he was too old to go on any further and repeat the conquests of Alexander the Great. Abgar VII was king of Osrhoene from 109-116 CE. Trajan's Parthian campaign, also known as the Trajan's Parthian War, was engaged by Roman emperor Trajanin the year 115 against the Parthian Empire in Mesopotamia. Osroes I was a Parthian contender, who ruled the western portion of the Parthian Empire from 109 to 129, with a brief interruption from 116 to 117. As both a general and a highly acclaimed commander, he was notably one of the most accomplished Berber statesmen in ancient Roman history. He needed glory. Patrick Le Roux, IN Ségolène Demougin, ed., Longden, "Notes on the Parthian Campaigns", 8. The Roman–Parthian Wars (54 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. But Trajan … Although the Parthians fielded impressive cavalry, they lacked the manpower that Rome could field. He withdrew the garrisons from Mesopotamia. Lightfoot (1990), 115: "Trajan succeeded in acquiring territory in these lands with a view to annexation, something which had not seriously been attempted before [...] Although Hadrian abandoned all of Trajan's conquests [...] the trend was not to be reversed. Assyria was reputedly a Roman province that lasted only two years. In 191, Septimius was assigned general of the Legions of Pannonia, southwest of modern Hungary.  The area between the Khabur River and the mountains around Singara seems to have been considered as the new frontier, and as such received a road surrounded by fortresses. This fact reminds us that both Rome and Parthia had overextended and each had little power left to conquer each other. Captured Parthian. When Roman and Parthian borders finally met, the centuries that followed were a time of diplomacy and war between two empires of distinct cultures and methods of war.  This interpretation is backed by the fact that all subsequent Roman wars against Parthia would aim at establishing a Roman presence deep into Parthia itself. , The chronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it is generally believed that early in 115 Trajan launched a Mesopotamian campaign, marching down towards the Taurus mountains in order to consolidate territory between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. He was the son and successor of Pacorus II. Previously we have made an animated historical documentary on the battle of Nisibis http://bit.ly/30vmmwO between the Roman and the Parthian empires. Parthian enterprise in the West began in the time of Mithridates I; during his reign, the Arsacids succeeded in extending their rule into Armenia and Mesopotamia.   In the absence of conclusive evidence, trade between Rome and India might have been far more balanced, in terms of quantities of precious metals exchanged: one of our sources for the notion of the Roman gold drain – Pliny's the Younger's uncle Pliny the Elder – had earlier described the Gangetic Plains as one of the gold sources for the Roman Empire. Ventidius had humble beginnings. Septimius then brought his attention to the Parthians, whom he believed to be his enemy for supporting his rival Niger. Trajan ignored these offers for peace and continued with his plans.  It is noteworthy that no new legions were raised by Trajan before the Parthian campaign, maybe because the sources of new citizen recruits were already over-exploited. [Lepper, F. Romans in Persia is related to the brief invasion and occupation of western and central areas of Parthia by the Romans during their empire. In the summer of 217 near the city of Nisibis, Macrinus was defeated by the Parthian army and was forced to make embarrassing concessions to the Parthians. Since there is a scarcity of Parthian sources, we are unable to cross reference the events presented by Roman accounts. As with Trajan, Septimius was an emperor with a very keen grasp of military affairs. The 160s decade ran from January 1, 160, to December 31, 169.  That done, Trajan retreated north in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia – where he had already accepted an armistice in exchange for surrendering part of the territory to Sanatruces' son Vologeses  and Mesopotamia. War in the East. The Roman–Persian Wars, also known as the Roman–Iranian Wars, were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian. Trajan’s campaign displayed eagerness for glory of the Roman emperors. Its hold on Mesopotamia had been seriously undermined by repeated Roman conquest of the cities of the region. Following the campaign of his subordinate, Marc Antony decided to take matters into his own hands. 115-125, Ancient Mesopotamia and Near East: Military History, Classical Mediterranean and Europe: Roman Military, Antony, Augustus and the Roman Principate, Final stages of the wars and the rise of the Sassanids, Conclusion: Legacy of the Roman-Parthian Wars. Ventidius proved to be a capable and distinguished commander under Caesar, whose influence accelerated Venditius’ career. Trajan's Parthian campaign, also known as Trajan's Parthian War, was engaged by Roman emperor Trajan in the year 115 against the Parthian Empire in Mesopotamia. He crossed the Tigris, reaffirmed his conquest of Adiabene and proceeded to Ctesiphon, the most important capital of the Parthian Empire. However, he did not success in establishing his line on the throne, and various Arsacid members of different lineages ruled until the accession of Vologases II, who succeeded in establishing his own line on the Armenian throne, which would rule the country until it was abolished by the Sasanian Empire in 428. The Roman–Parthian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. However, despite suffering punitive expeditions by the Roman Empire, the Parthian victory at the Battle of Carrhae has remained a lasting memory in the history that symbolizes the limit of Roman power, even though significance of the battle has been exaggerated. Quelques renseignements inobservés (Jean d'Ephèse, Anthologie Grecque XVI 72)". Pacorus and Labienus defeated the Roman governor of Syria and overran the province. The earlier defeats of Crassus and Antony still presented a dilemma. Michael Alexander Speidel: "Bellicosissimus Princeps". The political turmoil the Parthian Empire, as aforementioned, was also a significant factor attributing to the lack of open war during the early. Continuing his march, Trajan crossed the Tigris River using boats and reached the city of Babylon, before returning to Antioch to pass the winter. The feudal structure of the Parthian empire may have limited its ability to project large armies against Rome. For that reason, we will focus on the stories of four Roman characters, three of whom ventured into Parthian lands. Unlike Crassus who ventured into open territory, the hilly terrain of the Taurus negated the Parthian strength in cavalry. Then, Trajan received word that a Parthian general Parthamastaphes, nephew of the King, was arriving with an army. “Roman Treaties with Parthia circa 95 – circa 64, Keaveny, Arthur.  Trajan was the first emperor to carry out a successful invasion of Mesopotamia. , Other historians reject these motives, as the supposed Parthian "control" over the maritime Far Eastern trade route was, at best, conjectural and based on a selective reading of Chinese sources – trade by land through Parthia seems to have been unhampered by Parthian authorities and left solely to the devices of private enterprise. However, the overall scarcity of manpower for the Roman military establishment meant that the campaign was doomed from the start. When Trajan became Emperor, he embarked on a series of campaigns to expand the realms of the empire. As a result of the battle, Macrinus was forced to seek peace, paying the Parthians a huge sum and abandoning the invasion of Mesopotamia that Caracalla had begun a year before. Unfortunately, the Romans retaliated two years later. Relief on the Arch of Septimius Severus, on which Septimius' victories against Parthia are commenorated. By 139 B.C.E. 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