By contrast, the second largest toothed whale (Baird's beaked whale) measures 12.8 metres (42 ft) and weighs up to 14 tonnes (15 short tons). Another synonym australasianus ("Australasian") was applied to sperm whales in the Southern Hemisphere. It is typically used when homing in on prey. The fleet's scope and size increased over time, and larger ships entered the fishery. They can plunge up to 2,250 meters (7,380 feet) below the ocean’s surface.  Albinos have been reported. , Sperm whales can live 70 years or more.  The speed of sound in spermaceti is 2,684 m/s (at 40 kHz, 36 °C), making it nearly twice as fast as in the oil in a dolphin's melon.  This oil is a mixture of triglycerides and wax esters. Their clicks are among the most powerful sounds in the animal kingdom (see above). A piece of the posterior wall of the frontal sac.  Acrophyseter, from the late Miocene, also had teeth in both the upper and lower jaws as well as a short rostrum and an upward curving mandible (lower jaw). , A social unit is a group of sperm whales who live and travel together over a period of years. The teeth were originally rare in Fiji and Tonga, which exported teeth, but with the Europeans' arrival, teeth flooded the market and this "currency" collapsed. James Nestor, an avid ocean-goer and author, claimed in a recent presentation that a fellow diver was swimming alongside a pod of sperm whales when one approached him out of curiosity. 1172–1174 in, Constantine, R. "Folklore and Legends", p. 449 in, "Sperm whale designated Connecticut state animal,", International Union for Conservation of Nature, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Physiology of underwater diving § Marine mammals, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area, the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region, "First long-term behavioral records from Cuvier's beaked whales (, "Census of Marine Life – From the Edge of Darkness to the Black Abyss", "Sperm Whale "Voices" Used to Gauge Whales' Sizes", "A complete phylogeny of the whales, dolphins and even-toed hoofed mammals (Cetartiodactyla)", "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences", "Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution", "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies", "Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna", http://docs.niwa.co.nz/library/public/NIWAis76.pdf. Long-line fishing operations in the Gulf of Alaska complain that sperm whales take advantage of their fishing operations to eat desirable species straight off the line, sparing the whales the need to hunt. The International Whaling Commission gave the species full protection in 1985, but hunting by Japan in the northern Pacific Ocean continued until 1988.  The sperm whale uses echolocation and vocalization as loud as 230 decibels (re 1 µPa m) underwater.  This gives rise to a distinctive bushy, forward-angled spray.  In comparison, human consumption of seafood is estimated to be 115 million tonnes (127 million short tons). The sound can be used to track squid just a foot in length up to a mile away.  From 1993 to 1996, molecular phylogenetics analyses by Milinkovitch and colleagues, based on comparing the genes of various modern whales, suggested that the sperm whales are more closely related to the baleen whales than they are to other toothed whales, which would have meant that Odontoceti were not monophyletic; in other words, it did not consist of a single ancestral toothed whale species and all its descendants. Lack of prey?] The anterior wall is smooth.  In a review of size variation in marine megafauna, McClain and colleagues noted that the largest male listed by the International Whaling Commission was recorded as 24 metres (79 ft) in 1933 and supported this as the largest; they noted, however, that sizes like these are rare and 95% of recorded sperm whales are below 15 metres (49 ft).  This has been adopted by most subsequent authors, although Schevill (1986 and 1987) argued that macrocephalus was published with an inaccurate description and that therefore only the species catodon was valid, rendering the principle of "First Reviser" inapplicable. Males make a lot of slow clicks in breeding grounds (74% of the time), both near the surface and at depth, which suggests they are primarily mating signals.  Experts soon realised that just one such species exists, although there has been debate about whether this should be named P. catodon or P. macrocephalus, two of the names used by Linnaeus. Either the theory is not borne out or the data is not representative for the capabilities of the sound-generating mechanism.  The teeth are cone-shaped and weigh up to 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) each.  Genera from the Oligocene and early and middle Miocene, with the possible exception of Aulophyseter, had teeth in their upper jaws. Let us conclude by putting the power of those whale clicks at 10m out, in absolute figures. Such properties are counterindicative of a sonar function, and quite different from the properties of dolphin sonar clicks. Spermaceti, originally mistakenly identified as the whales' semen, is the semi-liquid, waxy substance found within the whale's head (see below).  Because the interval between pulses of a sperm whale's click is related to the length of the sound producing organ, an individual whale's click is unique to that individual.  This fertilises phytoplankton and other plants on the surface of the ocean and contributes to ocean productivity and the drawdown of atmospheric carbon. Sperm whales are listed on Appendix I and Appendix II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).  Among several regions, such as along coastal waters of southern Australia, sperm whales have been considered to be locally extinct.  It has a series of ridges on the back's caudal third instead of a dorsal fin. It appears that some whales may fall into a deep sleep for about 7 percent of the time, most often between 6 p.m. and midnight. Sperm whales are the loudest mammals on the planet, with vocalizations reaching an astonishing 230 decibels.  The whales rarely, if ever, leave their group. , Currently, entanglement in fishing nets and collisions with ships represent the greatest threats to the sperm whale population. Popular locations for sperm whale watching include the town of Kaikoura on New Zealand's South Island, Andenes and Tromsø in Arctic Norway; as well as the Azores, where the continental shelf is so narrow that whales can be observed from the shore, and Dominica where a long-term scientific research program, The Dominica Sperm Whale Project, has been in operation since 2005. Romances of Adventure. Sperm whales can live 70 years or more.. An Observation of Sperm Whales (, "Deformed Dolphin Accepted Into New Family", "Observations of interaction between sperm whales and short-finned pilot whales in the Gulf of Mexico", "Retroposon analysis of major cetacean lineages: The monophyly of toothed whales and the paraphyly of river dolphins", "Killer sperm whale: a new basal physeteroid (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late Miocene of Italy", "The Evolutionary History of Whales and Dolphins", "The status of natural resources on the high seas", "Christopher Hussey Blown Out (Up) to Sea", "An Essay upon the Natural History of Whales, with a Particular Account of the Ambergris Found in the Sperma Ceti Whale", "From Davis Strait to Bering Strait: The Arrival of the Commercial Whaling Fleet in North America's West Arctic", "A Review of Cetaceans from Waters off the Arabian Peninsula", "The RMS – A Question of Confidence: Manipulations and Falsifications in Whaling", "Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Collections Online Search – Rei puta", "Dress and Weapons of the Melanesians: Ornament", "Chapter 3. , American sperm whaling soon spread from the east coast of the American colonies to the Gulf Stream, the Grand Banks, West Africa (1763), the Azores (1765), and the South Atlantic (1770s). By analyzing click after click after click, the scientists found that to make a click at depths of 500 meters (1,640 feet), the whales may use as little as 50 microliters of air — the volume of a drop of water. Bulls will fight with each other over females, and males will mate with multiple females, making them polygynous, but they do not dominate the group as in a harem. They conjectured that sperm whales use vision to hunt squid, either by detecting silhouettes from below or by detecting bioluminescence. It is thickset and has small paddlelike flippers and a series of rounded humps on its back. , How they choose mates has not been definitively determined. The second chamber is larger and is where digestion takes place. The sperm whale's ivory-like teeth were often sought by 18th- and 19th-century whalers, who used them to produce inked carvings known as scrimshaw. Like other toothed whales, the sperm whale can retract and protrude its eyes, thanks to a 2-cm-thick retractor muscle attached around the eye at the equator, but are unable to roll the eyes in their sockets.. , An older study, examining whales captured by the New Zealand whaling fleet in the Cook Strait region, found a 1.69:1 ratio of squid to fish by weight. The S-shaped blowhole is located very close to the front of the head and shifted to the whale's left.  The species is listed as endangered on the United States Endangered Species Act..  Another view holds that exploitation by overwhaling had virtually no effect on the size of the bull sperm whales, and their size may have actually increased in current times on the basis of density dependent effects. The acoustic repertoire heard from diving sperm whales consisted of usual clicks, creaks, codas, and ttumpets. ", "Sperm whale sound production studied with ultrasound time/depth-recording tags", "Mornington Peninsula Biodiversity: Survey and Research Highlights", "Unexpected changes in the oxic/anoxic interface in the Black Sea", First live sperm whales sighted in Pakistani waters: WWF (VIDEO), Sperm whales and blue whales sighted by fishermen off the coast of Pakistan, 전남 신안군 우의도, 길이 16m 무게 40톤 초대형 고래 죽은채 발견[김양훈, "エコツアー風景 -イルカ・クジラ・ネイチャー ウォッチングセンター：静岡県伊東市城ヶ崎 富戸港 - 光海丸で行く、本当の大自然との、"ふれあい"。- ドルフィンウォッチング、エコツーリスト、エコツーリズム KOHKAIMARU 石井泉 光海丸", "相模湾でマッコウクジラに遭遇 Sperm Whale Encounter in Japan", "RYUKYU Islands - くじらガイドがお届けするクジラ・シャチ・イルカ・自然・エコツアー情報", PLOS ONE: Spatial and Seasonal Distribution of American Whaling and Whales in the Age of Sail, "BBC News - Sperm whales sighting off north-west Scotland 'extraordinary, "Something killed a lot of sperm whales in the past—and it wasn't whalers", "FLMNH Ichthyology Department: Megamouth", "Diet and mitochondrial DNA haplotype of a sperm whale (, "Iron defecation by sperm whales stimulates carbon export in the Southern Ocean", "Killer whale predation on sperm whales: Observations and implications", No Danger in Sight? Spermaceti, obtained primarily from the spermaceti organ, and sperm oil, obtained primarily from the blubber in the body, were much sought after by 18th, 19th, and 20th century whalers. James Nestor, an avid ocean-goer and author, claimed in a recent presentationÂ that a fellow diver was swimming alongside a pod of sperm whales when one approached him out of curiosity.  However, more recent studies, based on various combinations of comparative anatomy and molecular phylogenetics, criticised Milinkovitch's analysis on technical grounds and reaffirmed that the Odontoceti are monophyletic. There are no ciliary muscles. Most of the sound energy is then reflected off the frontal sac at the cranium and into the melon, whose lens-like structure focuses it. This bulbous expansion acts as a windkessel, ensuring a steady blood flow as the heart rate slows during diving. The posterior wall of the frontal sac is covered with fluid–filled knobs, which are about 4–13 mm in diameter and separated by narrow grooves.  Orycterocetus fossils have also been found in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, in addition to the west coast of the United States.  Sperm whaling increased until the mid-nineteenth century. , The sperm whale is the largest toothed whale, with adult males measuring up to 20.7 metres (68 ft) long and weighing up to 80 tonnes (79 long tons; 88 short tons).  In one case, three sperm whales were observed attacking or playing with a megamouth. The sperm whale's unique body is unlikely to be confused with any other species. , The sperm whale is among the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans.  By 1880, it had declined by an estimated 29 percent. [What does being anoxic have to do with whales that don't breath under water? It is analogous to the melon found in other toothed whales. They occurred often in necklaces. , Sperm whales are not known for forging bonds with other species, but it was observed that a bottlenose dolphin with a spinal deformity had been accepted into a pod of sperm whales. Initially, modern whaling activity focused on large baleen whales, but as these populations were taken, sperm whaling increased. , It is estimated that the historic worldwide population numbered 1,100,000 before commercial sperm whaling began in the early 18th century.  Furthermore, The Taxonomy Committee of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world, officially uses Physeter macrocephalus when publishing their definitive list of marine mammal species.  Today the tabua remains an important item in Fijian life.  Sexually mature females give birth once every 4 to 20 years (pregnancy rates were higher during the whaling era).  Birth is a social event, as the mother and calf need others to protect them from predators. , The spermaceti organs may also help adjust the whale's buoyancy. By contrast, the auditory system is enlarged. It is also covered by the Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area (ACCOBAMS) and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific Cetaceans MOU).  Between 184,000 and 236,000 sperm whales were killed by the various whaling nations in the 19th century, while in the 20th century, at least 770,000 were taken, the majority between 1946 and 1980. Tracking of diving whales suggests that groups engage in herding of prey, similar to bait balls created by other species, though the research needs to be confirmed by tracking the prey..  The largest sperm whale weighed in piecemeal was 18.1 metres (59 ft) long and weighed 57 tonnes (56 long tons; 63 short tons). Kurita T., 2010, 『シャチに襲われたマッコウクジラの行動』, Japan Cetology Research Group News Letter 25, retrieved 10-05-2014.  Like that of other whales, the sperm whale's milk has a higher fat content than that of terrestrial mammals: about 36%, compared to 4% in cow milk. One study, carried out around the Galápagos, found that squid from the genera Histioteuthis (62%), Ancistrocheirus (16%), and Octopoteuthis (7%) weighing between 12 and 650 grams (0.026 and 1.433 lb) were the most commonly taken.